Toeplitz operators arise in plenty of applications. They constitute one of the most important classes of non-selfadjoint operators, and the ideas and methods prevailing in the field of Toeplitz operators are a fascinating illustration of the fruitful interplay between operator theory, complex analysis, and Banach algebra techniques. This book is a systematic introduction to the advanced analysis of block Toeplitz operators and includes both classical results and recent developments. Its first edition has been a standard reference for fifteen years. The present second edition is enriched by several results obtained only in the last decade. The topics treated range from the analysis of locally sectorial matrix functions through Toeplitz and Wiener-Hopf operators on Banach spaces, projection methods, and quarter-plane operators up to Toeplitz and Wiener-Hopf determinants. The book is addressed to both graduate students approaching the subject for the first time and specialists in the theory of Toeplitz operators, but should also be of interest to physicists, probabilists, and computer scientists.