This book sets the questions of energy and the environment in the North in the global context and further addresses historical developments, views on energy taxation and tariffs, and effects of EU energy policy. Climate change appears more frequently than ever on the top of global and national policy agendas. In the current situation traditional environmental concern and environmental policy may not suffice in the face of the global challenge as manifested by climate change and the depletion of fossil energy resources. But as new data comes to light, new energy policies and changes in economic structures are crucial for putting into action global climate policy. Crucial tasks in environmental policy are the sustainable utilisation of natural resources and the conservation of natural and human-made habitats. One of the areas of the world where this comes into play the most is in the Nordic countries. Northern societies are predominantly high tech, high consumption and high energy supply societies. And with the transition from older energy sources (wood for heating and stream water for power production) to newer ones (oil and nuclear energy) discussions on the environmental impact have led to public and corporate action. The Northern countries have been at the forefront in finding sustainable alternatives to solve conflicts arising from the rise in energy needs. However, these countries have taken different pathways with different policies in attempting to achieve this. As the needs and concerns from climate change arise, a Northern dimension, involving policies that contrast to European and global trends, emerges. Energy, Policy, and the Environment: Modeling Sustainable Development for the North explores that dimension.