The conference proceedings consist of approximately 120 technical papers presented at the Seventh International Geostatistics Congress held in Banff, Alberta, Canada in 2004. All the papers were reviewed by an international panel of leading geostatisticians. The five major sections are: theory, mining, petroleum, environmental and other applications. The first section showcases new and innovative ideas in the theoretical development of geostatistics as a whole; these ideas will have large impact on the directions of future geostatistical research, and the conventional approaches to heterogeneity modelling in a wide range of natural resource industries. The next four sections are focused on applications and innovations relating to the use of geostatistics in specific industries. Historically, mining, petroleum and environmental industries have embraced the use of geostatistics for uncertainty characterization, so these three industries are identified as major application areas. The last section is open for innovative geostatistical application to address the issues and impact of uncertainty in other industries.