The UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in nutrition are at the core of this book, with special attention to young women and their children. The first part is dedicated to the overall analysis of the world nutrition situation as related to achieving the MDG. The chapters cover the global distribution of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in young women and infants, and the disease burden related to it. The second part reviews the measures taken to achieve the MDG and the potential contributions of nutrition-specific and disease control interventions (particularly with regard to reducing child and maternal mortality), as well as the possible role of sectors other than health. The last part looks into the future, scrutinizing the causes and consequences of non-communicable disease in both the developing and developed world, as well as reviewing the latest scientific evidence for underlying mechanisms and discussing the implications for public health and policy makers.