The book deals with the ancient exploitation and production of copper, exemplified by the mining district of Faynan, Jordan. It is an interdisciplinary study that comprises (mining-) archaeological and scientific aspects. The development of organisational patterns and technological improvements of mining and smelting through the ages (5th millennium BC to Roman Byzantine period), in a specific mining region, is discussed. Principles of modern archaeometallurgy in the field and laboratory are explained. An important focus are mineralogical and chemical slag investigations and on the role of trace elements and lead isotope abundance ratios in ores and metals. Provenance studies show the distribution of Faynan copper in the Southern Levant in the Early Bronze Age.